Contrast-enhanced MR diffusion and perfusion were able to differentiate between central gland prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia, according to a study published in Radiology.
The apparent diffusion coefficient differs significantly between central gland carcinoma, stromal hyperplasia, and glandular hyperplasia. Using ADC can help physicians distinguish between cancerous and benign tissue. In addition, combining the rate of contrast transfer between blood and tissue with the ADC can also aid the detection of central gland cancer.
In their retrospective study, the University of Chicago researchers included 49 patients who underwent endorectal MR imaging followed by radical prostatectomy, 26 of whom had central gland cancer.
The researchers found the ADC was 1.05 for central gland carcinoma, 1.27 for stromal hyperplasia foci, and 1.73 for glandular hyperplasia foci. Perfusion parameters were similar in central gland carcinomas and stromal hyperplasia foci. Adding the contrast agent transfer rate between blood and tissue to the ADC increased sensitivity from 38% to 57%. Adding the contrast agent transfer rate between blood and tissue to the ADC increased specificity to 90%.